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This results in a highly stable aromatic system. The following article covers the history, applications, and characteristics including structure and bonding, principle types of complexes, and reactions and syntheses of coordination compounds. For more information about specific properties or types of coordination compounds, see the articles isomerism ; coordination number ; chemical reaction ; and organometallic compound.

Naturally occurring coordination compounds are vital to living organisms.

Aqueous Organometallic Catalysis

Metal complexes play a variety of important roles in biological systems. Many enzymes , the naturally occurring catalysts that regulate biological processes, are metal complexes metalloenzymes ; for example, carboxypeptidase , a hydrolytic enzyme important in digestion , contains a zinc ion coordinated to several amino acid residues of the protein. Another enzyme, catalase , which is an efficient catalyst for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide , contains iron - porphyrin complexes. In both cases, the coordinated metal ions are probably the sites of catalytic activity.

Hemoglobin also contains iron-porphyrin complexes, its role as an oxygen carrier being related to the ability of the iron atoms to coordinate oxygen molecules reversibly. Other biologically important coordination compounds include chlorophyll a magnesium -porphyrin complex and vitamin B 12 , a complex of cobalt with a macrocyclic ligand known as corrin. The applications of coordination compounds in chemistry and technology are many and varied. The brilliant and intense colours of many coordination compounds, such as Prussian blue , render them of great value as dyes and pigments.

Phthalocyanine complexes e. Several important hydrometallurgical processes utilize metal complexes.


Hexaaquaruthenate II as a catalyst precursor in aqueous organometallic catalysis-- A. Ruthenium-catalyzed oxidation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in aqueous medium-- M. Hydrosoluble ligands for a new technology-- E.

Comparative study of biphase reduction of carbonyl compounds catalyzed by homogeneous and water soluble Ru catalysts-- S. Sabata, et al. Three approaches to catalytic aqueous organometallic chemistry involving water soluble ligands, some modified cyclodextrins as ligands, and reactions in an aluminophosphate cavity-- W. Jackson, et al.

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Models for supported aqueous-phase catalysis-- I. Toth, et al. Stoichiometric and exhaustive hydrolysis of N, N-dialkylcarbamates-- D.

Belli Dell'Amico, et al. Spychaj, et al. Organometallic catalysis in water and in a two-phase system-- D. Chiral sulfonated phosphines in enantioselective catalysis-- J. Asymmetric complex catalysis in micellar systems-- G.

Bibliographic Information

Oehme, et al. Bioorganometallic chemistry: the reaction of a 5-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl rhodium aqua complex with nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides, and oligonucleotides-- R.

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It also discusses chiral ligands and enantioselective catalysis, organometallic radical photochemistry in aqueous solutions, bio-organometallic chemistry, organometallic reactions of biopolymers, and catalytic modification of biomembranes. The summary of recent results is supplemented by an assessment of probable future research trends. Bibliographic information. ISBN hardcover : alk. Browse related items Start at call number: QD A DOI : People are keen to know new inventions in the field of chemistry but at the same time, they are also eager to know how far the newly developed processes are benign to us!

Hence, alternative benign organic methodologies have become an imperative part of organic syntheses and chemical reactions. Role of catalysts in organic synthesis is obvious and thus they find huge applications and uses. Efforts have been made to reduce toxicity level of catalysts by multidirectional modifications, but the most fruitful way is to design an organic reaction without catalyst s , if feasible! If this important achievement can be coupled with energy consideration, one of the most alarming issues in the 21 st Century, then it would be the great as far green chemistry practice and sustainability are concerned.